Monday, 28 July 2014

Ebola Outbreak: Causes, Transmission, Symptoms And Prevention

Ebola Virus Disease(EVD)

, formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a severe,often fatal illness in humans. The first outbreak of EVD was in 1976 - a twin outbreak in Nzara,Sudan and Yambuku,Democratic Republic of Congo. The largest outbreak as of 2014 is the ongoing ''2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak'' which is affecting Guinea,Sierra Leone,Liberia and Nigeria.


EVD is caused by 4 of 5 viruses classified in the genus Ebolavirus,family Filoviridae,order Mononegavirales ; Bundigyo virus,Ebola/Zaire virus,Sudan virus and Tai forest virus. The fifth,Reston virus,commonly found in Philippine and China can infect humans,but no illness has been reported till date.


EVD is believed to occur after an Ebola virus is transmitted to a human index. It's transmitted through direct contact with blood,secretions,organs or other bodily fluids of infected people.


-Intense weakness
-Muscle pain
-Sore throat
-Rash,impaired kidney and liver function.
-Low white blood cell and platelet counts.
In Africa,fruit bats,particularly species of the genera ''Hypsignathus Monstrosus'',''Epomops Franqueti'' and ''Myanycteris Torquata'' are the natural hosts of EBOV. No vaccine for EVD is available,patients are frequently dehydrated and require oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes or intravenous fluids.


-Reduce risk of animal-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys and consumption of their raw meat.
-Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing.
-Animal meat should be thoroughly cooked.
-Avoiding close contact with an Ebola patient.
-Sharing of personal clothings should be avoided.
-Handshaking,hugging and other bodily contacts should be reduced to avoid cataclysmic outbreak.

Considering the perculiarity of Obafemi Awolowo University campus where bats fly in their millions every minute, what precautionary measures are been put in place by the school management to prevent the Ebola outbreak?

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